United States District Court, E.D. Virginia, Norfolk Division
OPINION & ORDER
TOMMY E. MILLER, Magistrate Judge.
This declaratory judgment action is before the Court on cross motions for summary judgment, as well as Plaintiff's motion to amend responses to requests for admissions. Plaintiff is seeking a declaration that the 2007 Yamaha Rhino, in which she was a passenger during an off-road accident in Arizona, is an "uninsured or underinsured motor vehicle" as defined in the policy of motor vehicle liability insurance Defendant issued to Plaintiff in Virginia. On January 28, 2015, the Court held a hearing on the motions. W. Lawrence Perkins, III, Esq., represented Plaintiff, and T. Jeffrey Salb, Esq., represented Defendant. Jody Stewart was the Official Court Reporter. For the reasons stated on the record, the Court GRANTS Plaintiff's motion to amend responses to requests for admissions (ECF No. 20), GRANTS Plaintiff's motion for summary judgment (ECF No. 13), DENIES Defendant's motion for summary judgment (ECF No. 10), and FINDS that the 2007 Yamaha Rhino is an "uninsured or underinsured motor vehicle" as defined in the insurance policy.
I. UNDISPUTED FACTS
This action relates to injuries Plaintiff sustained in Arizona while riding off-road in a 2007 Yamaha Rhino ("the Rhino") operated by her brother, Joseph Montgomery. The relevant facts are not in dispute. Plaintiff is seeking coverage for her injuries under the uninsured/underinsured endorsements in the motor vehicle liability insurance policy issued to her by Defendant in Virginia ("the Policy"), which has uninsured/underinsured coverage limits of $100, 000. Policy, Ex. 1 to Def.'s Mem. in Support of Sum. Judg. ("Def.'s Mem."), ECF No. 11-2. The Policy defines "uninsured motor vehicle" and "underinsured motor vehicle" as "a land motor vehicle or trailer of any type" that does not meet certain coverage limits, but provides, "neither uninsured motor vehicle' nor underinsured motor vehicle' includes:  [a] farm type tractor or other equipment designed for use principally off public roads while not on public roads." Policy 12-13, ECF No. 11-2.
On February 12, 2012, Plaintiff was riding in the front passenger seat of the Rhino operated by her brother, Joseph Montgomery, in Globe, Arizona. Compl. ¶¶ 9-10. The Rhino is a four-wheel vehicle with two bucket seats in the front, a bench seat in the back, an open top, open sides, and roll bars. See Ex. 3-6 to Def.'s Mem., Photos of the Rhino, ECF Nos. 11-4, 11-5. Joseph Montgomery was driving the Rhino off-road at Round Mountain Park where there was no improved, paved, or maintained road. Dep. of Joseph Montgomery ("Dep.") 23:2-4, ECF No. 11-7, 12-10; Arizona Police Crash Report, ECF No. 11-6; Ans. to Req. for Admission 13, ECF No. 11-1. Joseph Montgomery began driving the Rhino up a hill, and then attempted to back down the hill, when the vehicle rolled onto its passenger side injuring Plaintiff. Dep. 23:11-21, ECF No. 11-7; Ans. to Req. for Admission 11, ECF No. 11-1.
The Owner's Manual for the Rhino states that the vehicle is designed for off-road use only, and should not be used on paved surfaces or public roads. Owners Manual, ECF No. 11-3 at 5, 15, 21, 93. The third page of the manual states,
[t]his vehicle is designed and manufactured for off-road use only. Use on public streets, roads, or highways is not only illegal in most areas, it also increases the risk of an accident involving other vehicles. This vehicle does not meet federal motor vehicle safety standards for on-road use.
ECF No. 11-3 at 5. The manual explains that the vehicle handles and maneuvers differently from cars, ATVs, go-carts, golf-cars, and grounds-keeping vehicles. ECF No. 11-3 at 16, 72. The vehicle "has higher ground clearance and other features to handle rugged terrain, " and must be driven slowly and turned gradually if it must be driven on pavement. ECF No. 11-3 at 15, 21, 72. The vehicle is intended for use by an operator sixteen years old or older with a valid motor vehicle license. ECF No. 11-3 at 17.
Joseph Montgomery testified that the previous owner made several modifications to the Rhino, including the addition of rear view lights, rear view mirrors, seatbelts, and other lighting. Dep. 9:4-21. Joseph Montgomery understood that these modifications were made so that the Rhino could be used on the highway. Id. Following his purchase of the Rhino, Joseph Montgomery registered the Rhino with the Arizona Motor Vehicle Division, and obtained license plates for the vehicle. Dep. 7:11-22; Vehicle Registration, ECF No. 12-1. Joseph Montgomery insured the Rhino through a motor vehicle liability insurance policy issued by Defendant in Arizona, with liability limits of $15, 000. Dep. 13:25-14:8; ECF No. 11-7. Joseph Montgomery explained that he used the Rhino primarily for driving on public roads, and that the Rhino would travel at speeds up to 45 miles per hour. Dep. 11:11-25, 22:24-23:1; ECF No. 11-7. In order to drive the Rhino off-road, Joseph Montgomery was required to purchase an "off-road vehicle sticker" from Arizona, and this sticker was necessary to operate the Rhino in the area where the accident occurred. Dep. 15:20-16:6, 22:13-23:16, 24:2-12; ECF No. 11-7.
II. MOTION TO AMEND RESPONSES TO REQUESTS FOR ADMISSION
Plaintiff has moved to amend the responses given to two requests for admissions propounded by Defendant. ECF No. 20. Courts may permit amendment of responses to requests for admission "if it would promote the presentation of the merits of the action and if the court is not persuaded that it would prejudice the requesting party in maintaining or defending the action on the merits." Fed. R. Civ. Proc. 36(b).
Defendant's requests for admission, Plaintiff's original responses, and Plaintiff's proposed amended responses are as follows:
2. Please admit that at the time of the vehicle incident referred to in the Complaint herein, the plaintiff was a passenger on a 2007 Yamaha model RGG All-Terrain vehicle (ATV).
RESPONSE: Admitted, except that the plaintiff believes the model was R66.
AMENDED RESPONSE: The plaintiff admits that she was a passenger on a 2007 Yamaha model R66 vehicle. The plaintiff admits that the body style of the vehicle according to the Arizona vehicle registration indicated ATV. The plaintiff denies that the vehicle was an All-Terrain ...