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In re KBR, Inc., Burn Pit Litigation

United States Court of Appeals, Fourth Circuit

June 20, 2018

In re: KBR, INC., Burn Pit Litigation. ALAN METZGAR, RWT 09-744; PAUL PARKER, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-744; JOSHUA ELLER, RWT 09-2748; JOANNE OCHS, RWT 09-2747; MELISSA OCHS, RWT 09-2747; JAMES MORGAN, RWT 09-2747; DAVID NEWTON, RWT 09-2747; CHRIS BOGGIANO, RWT 09-2747; EARL CHAVIS, RWT 09-2747; BENNY LYLE REYNOLDS, RWT 09-2747; ALBERT PAUL BITTEL, III, RWT 09-2745; MICHAEL DOUGLAS MOORE, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2742; DAVID U. LACKEY, RWT 09-2743; RANDALL L. ROBINSON, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2743; MICHAEL AUW, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2741; CORY CASALEGNO, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2741; RICHARD RONALD GUILMETTE, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2739; WILLIAM G. BRISTER, JR., and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2740; HENRY J. O'NEILL, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2740; SMSGT GLEN S. MASSMAN, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2750; SSGT WENDY L. MCBREAIRTY, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2750; DEAN GUY OLSON, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2744; ROBERT CAIN, RWT 09-2749; CRAIG HENRY, RWT 09-2749; FRANCIS JAEGER, RWT 09-2749; DAVID MCMENOMY, RWT 09-2749; MARK POSZ, RWT 09-2749; EL KEVIN SAR, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2749; MAURICE CALLUE, RWT 09-2980; DENNIS WAYNE BRIGGS, RWT 09-2980; EDWARD LEE BUQUO, RWT 09-2980; WAYNE E. FABOZZI, RWT 09-2980; SHARLENE S. JAGGERNAUTH, RWT 09-2980; FLOYD JAMES JOHNSON, SR., RWT 09-2980; TAMRA C. JOHNSON, RWT 09-2980; RICHARD LEE KEITH, RWT 09-2980; DANIEL SANTIAGO MORALES, RWT 09-2980; PHILLIP MCQUILLAN, RWT 09-2980; ILDEBBRANDO PEREZ, RWT 09-2980; LUIGI ANTONIO PROVENZA, RWT 09-2980; RUTH ANN REECE, RWT 09-2980; EDUARDO SAAVEDRA, SR., RWT 09-2980; JILL R. WILKINS, personal representative of Kevin E. Wilkins, deceased: RWT 09-2980; MICHAEL DONNELL WILLIAMS, RWT 09-2980; JERMAINE LYNELL WRIGHT, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2980; BENJAMIN BOEKE, RWT 09-2984; CRAIG KERVIN, RWT 09-2984; BARRY ZABIELINSKI, RWT 09-2984; PABLO BERCHINI, RWT 09-2979; BRIAN P. ROBINSON, RWT 09-2979; DAVID GREEN, RWT 09-2985; NICK DANIEL HEISLER, RWT 09-2985; JOHN DOE, sued as John and Jane Does 1-1000 and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2985; JOHN A. WESTER, JR., RWT 09-2987; EDWARD ADAMS, personally and as a class representative for all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2981; KENNETH BALDWIN, personally and as a class representative for all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2981; DONNA WU, personally and as a class representative for all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2981; JOHN DOES 1-1000, RWT 09-2981; JANE DOES 1-1000, RWT 09-2981; KENNETH PAUL ROBBINS, RWT 09-2983; BRIAN BLUMLINE, RWT 09-2983; ROBERT BIDINGER, RWT 09-2983; UNKNOWN PARTIES, named as "all others similarly situated": RWT 09-2983; DERROL A. TURNER, RWT 09-2986; VINCENT C. MOSELEY, RWT 09-2986; ALEX HARLEY, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2986; FRED ROBERT ATKINSON, JR., RWT 09-2746; ROBYN SACHS, personal representative of Christopher Sachs, deceased: RWT 09-2746; JENNIFER MONTIJO, RWT 09-2746; STEPHEN FLOWERS, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2746; WALLACE MCNABB, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2982; PATRICK CASSIDY, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3309; WILLIAM BARRY DUTTON, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3309; CHRISTOPHER MICHAEL KOZEL, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3309; CHARLES HICKS, RWT 09-3305; SEAN ALEXANDER STOUGH, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3305; BILL JACK CARLISLE, JR., and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3299; ANTHONY EDWARD ROLES, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3299; DANNY LAPIERRE, Individually and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-2083; ANTHONY RAY JOHNSON, RWT 09-3313; DAVID MICHAEL ROHMFELD, RWT 09-3313; RICHARD MCANDREW, RWT 09-3310; LORENZO PEREZ, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3310; THOMAS KELLECK, RWT 09-3304; DAN BOWLDS, RWT 09-3304; TONY ALLEN GOUCKENOUR, RWT 09-3304; JOHN WILLIAM JACKSON, RWT 09-3304; JOHN PETE TROOST, RWT 09-3304; DEBORAH ANN WHEELOCK, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3304; GEORGE LUNDY, RWT 09-3303; EUNICE RAMIREZ, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3301; MARCOS BARRANCO, RWT 09-3300; JOEL LUGO, RWT 09-3300; SHAWN THOMAS SHERIDAN, RWT 09-3300; JAYSON WILLIAMS, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3300; HEINZ ALEX DISCH, RWT 09-3312; JAMES MCCOLLEM, RWT 09-3312; TRAVIS FIDELL PUGH, RWT 09-3312; THOMAS OLSON, RWT 09-3315; BRIAN PAULUS, RWT 09-3315; PAUL MICHAEL WIATR, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3315; LEE WARREN JELLISON, JR., RWT 09-3302; JESSEY JOSEPH PHILIP BACA, RWT 09-3311; DANIEL TIJERNIA, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3311; JOSHUA DAVID BEAVERS, RWT 09-3314; JOHN AND JANE DOES 1-1000, RWT 09-3308; MATTHEW JOEL FIELDS, RWT 09-3314; MICHAEL FOTH, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3316; STEVEN E. GARDNER, RWT 09-3314; KENNETH HARRIS, RWT 09-3308; STEPHEN R. JONES, RWT 09-3314; BRETT ANTHONY MAZZARA, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3316; KEVIN SCOTT TEWES, RWT 09-3314; KATHY VINES, RWT 09-3308; ANTHONY JEROME WILLIAMS, RWT 09-3308; HANS NICOLAS YU, RWT 09-3314; JEFFREY MORGAN COX, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3306; JAMES WARREN GARLAND, and all others similarly situated: RWT 09-3306; PETER BLUMER, and all others similarly situated: RWT 10-389; SCOTT ANDREW CHAMBERLAIN, and all others similarly situated: RWT 10-389; TIMOTHY E. DIMON, and all others similarly situated: RWT 10-389; WILLIAM PHILIP KRAWCZYK, SR., and all others similarly situated: RWT 10-389; SEAN JOHNSON, and all others similarly situated: RWT 10-390; DAVID ROUNDS, Personal representative of Andrew Ray Rounds, deceased: RWT 10-388; LISA ROUNDS, Personal representative of Andrew Ray Rounds, deceased: RWT 10-388; ALBERT JOHNSON, JR., RWT 10-815; GENE BISHOP, RWT 10-814; PATRICK BISHOP, RWT 10-814; SHERRY BISHOP, Individually and as representative of the estate of Kirk A. Bishop: RWT 10-814; GENE MATSON; GENE LEONARD MATSON; TIMOTHY J. WATSON, RWT 10-1160; DAVID JOBES, RWT 10-836; BETH OSHIRO BURTON, RWT 10-3360; MICHELLE BROWN, RWT 11-336; JONATHAN LYNN, RWT 11-336; ANDREW MASON, RWT 11-336; CHARLES KINNEY, RWT 11-337; MICHAEL MCCLAIN, RWT 11-338; BASIL SALEM, RWT 11-1092; JUSTIN GONZALES, RWT 11-2634; MATTHEW GUTHERY, RWT 11-2635; CHRISTOPHER LIPPARD, RWT 11-2635; DAVID PARR, RWT 11-3292; JOHN FINBAR MONAHAN, RWT 11-3542; AMANDA BRANNON, RWT 12-3070; L. CHANDLER BRANNON, RWT 12-3070; ELIYAHU ARSHADNIA, RWT 13-1023, individually and on behalf of the marital community with Simcha Arshadnia; SIMCHA ARSHADNIA, RWT 13-1023, individually and on behalf of the marital community with Eliyahu Arshadnia; WILLIAM SIMMONS, RWT 13-1023, an individual; DAWN LUCIA, RWT 13-1023, individually and on behalf of the Estate of Joseph Lucia, deceased; DANIEL MEYER, RWT 13-1023, individually and on behalf of the marital community with Harmonie Meyer; HARMONIE MEYER, RWT 13-1023, individually and on behalf of the marital community with Daniel Meyer; JOSE BURGOS, RWT 13-1023, individually and on behalf of the marital community with Bethany Burgos; BETHANY BURGOS, RWT 13-1023, individually and on behalf of the marital community with Jose Burgos; STEPHEN HOPPER, RWT 13-1023, an individual; STEVEN C. SNEE, RWT 15-1568; VINCENT MOLINO, RWT 15-1568; LARRY ENGLE, RWT 15-1568; RAYMOND CRUZ, RWT 15-1568; ANTONIO CLARK, RWT 15-1568; JAMES KNOUSE, JR., RWT 15-1568; LESLIE SCOTT, RWT 15-1568; SCOTT HURT, RWT 15-1568; 176-459 JAMES JACKSON, RWT 15-1568; JEFFREY DURHAM, RWT 15-1568; WILLIAM AUSTIN DANIEL, RWT 15-1568, deceased; JOSEPH COLLINS, RWT 15-1568; RACHEL GUTIERREZ, RWT 15-1568; BRANDON SHOEMAKE, RWT 15-1568; STACIE MOSER, RWT 15-1568; ALBERT ROBERTS, RWT 15-1568; JEFFREY WILKINS, RWT 15-1568; WILLIAM EATON, RWT 15-1568; TODD GRIMES, RWT 15-1568; GARY MORRIS, RWT 15-1568; MICHAEL GENAW, RWT 15-1568; JOSHUA KEPPLE, RWT 15-1568; WILLIS ROWE; JUSTIN ACOSTA, RWT 15-3836; TRAVIS ADAMS, RWT 15-3836; LEON J. ALEXANDER, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL DEVINCENT AMICY, RWT 15-3836; THOMAS ANDERSEN, RWT 15-3836; PATTI J. ANDERSON, RWT 15-3836; PHILLIP A. ANDERSON, RWT 15-3836; DOMINICK THOMAS ANDREWS, RWT 15-3836; JULIO A. APODACA, RWT 15-3836; ROSE MARIE APPLEWHITE, RWT 15-3836; FRANCISCO ARAQUE, RWT 15-3836; ANTHONY L. ARRINGTON, RWT 15-3836; TRACY L. ASHER, RWT 15-3836; MATTHEW K. ASHWORTH, RWT 15-3836; RYAN L. ATTAR, RWT 15-3836; DUSTIN JEFFREY AUER, RWT 15-3836; EVERETTE D. AVERY, JR., RWT 15-3836; JOHN ALAN BACON, RWT 15-3836; SCOTT D. BAILEY, RWT 15-3836; JESSE BAKER, RWT 15-3836; LARRY BAKER, RWT 15-3836; STEVEN LEROY BAKKEN, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL DANIEL BANKS, RWT 15-3836; ANGELA VANETTE BARNES, RWT 15-3836; CHARLES J. BARNES, RWT 15-3836; JULIE BARON-MANNIX, RWT 15-3836; TRAVIS M. BASSETT, RWT 15-3836; JAMES R. BATES, RWT 15-3836; JERICHO N. BEAUCHAMP, RWT 15-3836; CRAIG BELANGER, RWT 15-3836; JUDY-ANN BELLEFLEUR, RWT 15-3836; REGINALD J. BELTON, RWT 15-3836; BRANDI L. BENSON, RWT 15-3836; THEODORE J. BILL, RWT 15-3836; JASON R. BILLS, RWT 15-3836; JOHNNIE F. BINES, RWT 15-3836; DENNIS A. BLANCHARD, RWT 15-3836; CLINT ALLEN BLANKENSHIP, RWT 15-3836; ANDREW MICHAEL BOOTH, RWT 15-3836; BRIAN K. BOWER, RWT 15-3836; ANDREW DOULGAS BOWERS, SR., RWT 15-3836; WILLIE ANTONIO BOYKIN, SR., RWT 15-3836; FRANK EARL BRAXTON, RWT 15-3836; ALAN K. BRIDGEWATER, RWT 15-3836; BRANDY E. BROADBENT, RWT 15-3836; RACHAEL BROWN, RWT 15-3836; DAVID F. BRYDEN, RWT 15-3836; DENNIS H. BUDD, RWT 15-3836; ERIK J. BURCH, RWT 15-3836; KENON L. BURNS, RWT 15-3836; THOMAS W. BURNS, RWT 15-3836; TEE JAY BURR, RWT 15-3836; ROBERT P. BUSSE, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL L. CALDWELL, RWT 15-3836; WILLIAM G. CARDWELL, RWT 15-3836; JOHN ERNEST CARLSON, RWT 15-3836; JASON L. CARMEN, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL W. CARR, RWT 15-3836; ROBIN A. CARR, RWT 15-3836; ANDREA M. CASTON, RWT 15-3836; FREDDIE E. CAVAZOS, JR., RWT 15-3836; RICHARD D. CELIA, RWT 15-3836; BLAIN L. CHAMBERS, RWT 15-3836; BRUCE R. CHAPLIN, RWT 15-3836; DANIEL C. CHAVEZ, SR., RWT 15-3836; LEONARD RAY CHEEK, RWT 15-3836; GWEN COLLEEN CHIARAMONTE, RWT 15-3836; BLAINE S. CHILD, RWT 15-3836; KENNETH ROGER CHRISTENSEN, SR., RWT 15-3836; SCOTT ALLAN CHRISTIE, RWT 15-3836; MARC J. CHUBBUCK, SR., RWT 15-3836; RICHARD CHARLES CHUMBLEY, JR., RWT 15-3836; JEFFREY S. CHURCH, RWT 15-3836; DERRICK D. CLARK, RWT 15-3836; RICHARD MICHAEL CLEMES, RWT 15-3836; RYAN V. COLLAMORE, RWT 15-3836; CONNIE G. CONLEY, RWT 15-3836; ANDREW E. COUSSENS, RWT 15-3836; KATHLEEN S. COY, RWT 15-3836; CHARLES DONALD CRABBE, JR., RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL A. CRANFILL, RWT 15-3836; PERRY A. CROSS, JR., RWT 15-3836; CRAIG J. DANIEL, RWT 15-3836; ROWENA L. DARVIN, RWT 15-3836; JESSE N. DAVIDSON, RWT 15-3836; BRITTANY J. DAVIS, RWT 15-3836; DANIEL LEE DAVIS, RWT 15-3836; MALONE W. DAVIS, RWT 15-3836; RYAN MARTIN DELONG, RWT 15-3836; DAVID BRIAN DELUCA, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL S. DELBORRELL, RWT 15-3836; JOSEPH EDWARD DEVALL, RWT 15-3836; SHAWN R. DEVANEY, RWT 15-3836; FREDERICK A. DEVONSHIRE, II, RWT 15-3836; MICKY DOTO, RWT 15-3836; JENNIFER L. DOWNES, RWT 15-3836; BRADLEY DOYLE, RWT 15-3836; ROBERT A. DREYFUS, RWT 15-3836; NICHOLAS R. DUDEK, JR., RWT 15-3836; JOHN G. DUERR, RWT 15-3836; BONNIE DUNLOP, RWT 15-3836; BRIAN EARL EASLEY, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL S. EDDY, RWT 15-3836; THOMAS S. EDWARDS, RWT 15-3836; RONALD EYRL EISMAN, RWT 15-3836; ROBERT CHRISTOPHER ELESKY, RWT 15-3836; JAMES COREY ELLIS, RWT 15-3836; EARNEST J. ELLISON, RWT 15-3836; SCOTT A. ELSENHEIMER, RWT 15-3836; AMANDA J. ENGEN, RWT 15-3836; GARY LEE ENNIS, RWT 15-3836; TREVOR G. ENNIS, RWT 15-3836; CASSANDRA D. EUSERY, RWT 15-3836; TERRY D. EVANS, RWT 15-3836; JUSTIN M. FAIRCLOTH, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL LEONARD FARLEY, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL FARMER, RWT 15-3836; JASON D. FARQUHARSON, RWT 15-3836; KENLEY FEAZELL, RWT 15-3836; TIMOTHY DONALD FENDLEY, RWT 15-3836; EDWARD LEO FERGUSON, RWT 15-3836; JOHN DAVID FIELDER, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL RAY FIELDS, RWT 15-3836; CRAIG D. FILLINGANE, RWT 15-3836; JAMES AUSTIN FISHER, RWT 15-3836; REGINALD FLEMING, JR., RWT 15-3836; DALE FORD, RWT 15-3836; RONALD LEE FRISBY, RWT 15-3836; BRAD L. FRUHLING, RWT 15-3836; JOHN R. FUDALA, RWT 15-3836; TOMMY L. FULLEN, RWT 15-3836; CARRIE C. GALLAGHER, RWT 15-3836; TOM LEE GALLAGHER, RWT 15-3836; ERIC BRADLEY GANN, RWT 15-3836; KAREN M. GHARST, RWT 15-3836, Formerly Gabriele; KARL MALINSKI GIBBS, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL P. GIBSON, RWT 15-3836; MITCHELL P. GILL, RWT 15-3836; AUDREY DEMON GLENN, RWT 15-3836; SANDI CHRISTINE GOLDEN-VEST, RWT 15-3836; RIGO A. GONZALEZ, RWT 15-3836; LEONARD GOODSON, III, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL A. GRILEY, JR., RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL A. GROCHOWSKI, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL W. HAFKE, RWT 15-3836; JARROD C. HALL, RWT 15-3836; JAMAR HAM, RWT 15-3836; BRYAN HAMILTON, RWT 15-3836; RICHARD P. HAMILTON, RWT 15-3836; JIMMY LYNN HAMPTON, RWT 15-3836; DAVID F. HAPPLE, RWT 15-3836; RICHARD ALAN HARDISON, RWT 15-3836; MIKEL HARPER, RWT 15-3836; JASON PAUL HATFIELD, RWT 15-3836; LARRY HAYNES, RWT 15-3836; WILLIAM JAMES HEARD, RWT 15-3836; JOHN L. HENDERSON, RWT 15-3836; WILLIAM MYRON HENDERSON, RWT 15-3836; CHRISTOPHER S. HENRIKSON, RWT 15-3836; ALLISON MARIKO HILL, RWT 15-3836; MARK A. HILL, RWT 15-3836; RICHARD CARL HOGAN, JR., RWT 15-3836; CLYDE RICHARD HOLDER, RWT 15-3836; STEVEN WAYNE HOLLEY, RWT 15-3836; MARCO ALEXANDER HORSEWOOD, RWT 15-3836; JAMES HERSHEL HUDSON, III, RWT 15-3836; AUNDREA M. HUNT, RWT 15-3836; MATTHEW CALVIN HURT, JR., RWT 15-3836; OZANE JACKSON, RWT 15-3836; WANDA N. JACKSON, RWT 15-3836; WADE JACOBSON, RWT 15-3836; ERIC JAEGER, RWT 15-3836; LAWRENCE J. JANKOWSKI, RWT 15-3836; DANIEL MARTIN JASONI, RWT 15-3836; RALPH BENJAMEN JENKINS, RWT 15-3836; ANTERIAN D. JOHNSON, RWT 15-3836; MICHELLE A. JOHNSON, RWT 15-3836; BRANDON CHRISTOPHER JOHNSTON, RWT 15-3836; DAVID ALLEN JONES, II, RWT 15-3836; JULIAN K. JONES, RWT 15-3836; PAUL G. JONES, RWT 15-3836; THOMAS K. JONES, RWT 15-3836; PAUL ANTHONY JONES, RWT 15-3836; SAMI JUMA, RWT 15-3836; STANLEY K. KAINA, JR., RWT 15-3836; KELLY JEAN KARL-FORST, RWT 15-3836; DANIEL R. KEARNEY, RWT 15-3836; BRYAN KEITH KEESE, RWT 15-3836; EDWIN KEITH, SR., RWT 15-3836, (PR); STEPHEN RANDALL KEITH, RWT 15-3836; JAMES ERIC KELLEY, RWT 15-3836; GEORGE KEYS, JR., RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL J. KIDDER, RWT 15-3836; DOULGAS HAMILTON KINARD, JR., RWT 15-3836; JAMES E. KIRK, RWT 15-3836; DAVID W. KIRKLAND, RWT 15-3836; GERALD KENNETH KREIN, RWT 15-3836; ROBIN KRUSKOL, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL D. KUSEK, RWT 15-3836; SEAN M. LADD, RWT 15-3836; PHILIP LAM, RWT 15-3836; CLIBURN LANE, JR., RWT 15-3836; PIERRE O'DELL LARKIN, RWT 15-3836; BRUCE G. LAUREIRO, RWT 15-3836; THADDEUS R. LAWRENCE, SR., RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL A. LEBLANC, RWT 15-3836; CHRISTINA L. LEE, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL CHARLES LEE, RWT 15-3836; ROBERT LIPPOLIS, RWT 15-3836; BRIAN KEITH LLOYD, RWT 15-3836; DEMPSEY LOVETT LOGUE, SR., RWT 15-3836; FRANKLIN GERALD LOWE, RWT 15-3836; FRANKLIN GERALD LOWE, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL LEE LOWE, RWT 15-3836; CHARLES J. LOWERY, RWT 15-3836; JUAN LUGO, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL L. MADIGAN, RWT 15-3836; DANIEL MAESTAS, RWT 15-3836; WILLIAM MAGEE, RWT 15-3836; JASON B. MARTIN, RWT 15-3836; DONALD EDMUNDO MARTINEZ, RWT 15-3836; OMOWUNMI MARTINS, RWT 15-3836; JON HARDING MASON, RWT 15-3836; RHONDA SUE MATCHETT, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL LEE MAYNARD, RWT 15-3836; ALAN AUSTIN MAYS, RWT 15-3836; FREDERICK D. MCCOLLUM, RWT 15-3836; JOHN ALBERT MCDONALD, RWT 15-3836; CORY ORLANDO MCGILL, RWT 15-3836; RAHMAN A. MCKINNON, RWT 15-3836; MURRILL L. MCLEAN, RWT 15-3836; ERIC B. MCLENDON, RWT 15-3836; SHAWN K. MCLEOD, RWT 15-3836; DENNIS E. MCMULLEN, RWT 15-3836; JONATHAN MEDINA, RWT 15-3836; RODNEY W. MEECE, RWT 15-3836; NATHAN T. MEIDL, RWT 15-3836; ALEXANDER MENKES, RWT 15-3836; KEITH R. MENZER, RWT 15-3836; JEFFREY A. MEO, RWT 15-3836; MARY A. MICKENS, RWT 15-3836, (Currently Glass, Mary A.); JAMES CUTHBERT MIDGETT, RWT 15-3836; AMANDA G. MILLER, RWT 15-3836; JAMES EDWARD MILLER, RWT 15-3836; LORI LYNN MITCHELL, RWT 15-3836; WILLIE J. MITCHELL, RWT 15-3836; PATRICK C. MONDRAGON, RWT 15-3836; DAVID A. MONTGOMERY, RWT 15-3836; BRIAN DAVID MURPHY, RWT 15-3836; TIMOTHY M. MURRAY, RWT 15-3836; FAYIZ NALU, RWT 15-3836; CHRISTOPHER LYNN NANNEY, RWT 15-3836; ANDREA MICHELE NEUTZLING, RWT 15-3836; RICHARD J. NICHOLLS, RWT 15-3836; SAMUEL NIEVES, RWT 15-3836; HANNA P. NISSAN, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL A. NORTHUP, RWT 15-3836; LAURA J. NOWLIN, RWT 15-3836; CHRISTOPHER SEAN NYBERG, RWT 15-3836; PATRICK MICHAEL O'CONNELL, RWT 15-3836; BRENDA M. O'NEAL, RWT 15-3836; ANTHONY BRETT OGDEN, RWT 15-3836; THOMAS K. OLESON, RWT 15-3836; THETA A. OLSON, RWT 15-3836; CARL ORLANDO, RWT 15-3836; CHRISTINE OSORIO, RWT 15-3836; LEWIS PALMER, RWT 15-3836; TIMOTHY STEVEN PARKE, RWT 15-3836; GREGORY D. PARKER, RWT 15-3836; ROBERT WILLIAM PAXTON, RWT 15-3836; MICHELE A. PEARCE, RWT 15-3836; AUDREY S. PERRY, RWT 15-3836; JOSHUA NATHAN PERUSSE, RWT 15-3836; DEBORA J. PFAFF, RWT 15-3836; JODY LEE PIERCY, RWT 15-3836; GREGORY J. PIETZ, RWT 15-3836; JAMES POLLOCK, RWT 15-3836; TAI PORTER, RWT 15-3836; JAMES PRESTON POTTER, JR., RWT 15-3836; LAUREN CAROL PRICE, RWT 15-3836; CEDRIC EUGENE PRICE, SR., RWT 15-3836; CALVIN PRIEST, RWT 15-3836; TANYA QUINCY, RWT 15-3836; VARITA V. QUINCY, RWT 15-3836; ROBERT F. RAMOS, JR., RWT 15-3836; GEORGE RICHARD RAPCIEWICZ, JR., RWT 15-3836; RYAN C. RASMUSSEN, RWT 15-3836; CHAD ROBERT READ, RWT 15-3836; TOMMY R. REDDICK, RWT 15-3836; BRUCE L. REGES, RWT 15-3836; DANIEL R. REYES, RWT 15-3836; MILTON M. REYNOLDS, RWT 15-3836; RICHARD D. RICE, RWT 15-3836; DANIEL EDWARD RICE, JR., RWT 15-3836; STEVEN S. RICHARDSON, RWT 15-3836; PAUL A. RICHMOND, RWT 15-3836; CHARLES RAYMOND RIIPPI, RWT 15-3836; LEONARD RITUMS, RWT 15-3836; VICTOR M. RIVERA, RWT 15-3836; WILLIAM O. ROARK, III, RWT 15-3836; JAMES ROBIN, RWT 15-3836; DANIEL M. ROBSHAW, RWT 15-3836; WAYNE RODRIGUEZ, RWT 15-3836; JOSE C. ROQUE, RWT 15-3836; ERNEST RICHARD ROTH, RWT 15-3836; CARTER CHARLES RUFF, RWT 15-3836; TERRY SALAZAR, RWT 15-3836; JAMES ROBERT SANDEFUR, RWT 15-3836; JOHNNIE C. SANDERS, JR., RWT 15-3836; CARLOS J. MARTIR SANDOVAL, RWT 15-3836; JEREMEN SANDOVAL, RWT 15-3836; HOBART P. SAUNDERS, RWT 15-3836; DANIEL B. SCHULTZ, RWT 15-3836; ROLAND DAVID SCHULZ, RWT 15-3836; ROLAND PERRY SHARP, RWT 15-3836; CHRISTOPHER R. SIMMONS, RWT 15-3836; MAREK M. SIPKO, RWT 15-3836; GREGORY C. SKYLES, RWT 15-3836; HOWARD LEON SLADE, RWT 15-3836; DAMIAN L. SMITH, RWT 15-3836; DAVID JOHN SMITH, RWT 15-3836; JASON WILLIAM SMITH, RWT 15-3836; KRYSTE SWANZETTA SMITH, RWT 15-3836; RONALD LAYNE SMITH, RWT 15-3836; TRACY LEMAR SMITH, RWT 15-3836; AZARIAH SMITH, JR., RWT 15-3836; FRANKLIN O. SNOW, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL L. SONGY, RWT 15-3836; KRISTIN SOUTHWELL, RWT 15-3836, formerly Otterstetter; SUZANNE M. SPEIGHT, RWT 15-3836; DAVID P. STAFFA, RWT 15-3836; NAPOLEAN L. STAFFORD, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL CHRISTOPHER STANCO, RWT 15-3836; EDWIN STEELE, RWT 15-3836; BRYAN L. STEVENS, RWT 15-3836; ANTHONY K. STEWARD, RWT 15-3836; SCOTT H. STRADLEY, RWT 15-3836; SHAWN E. STROUT, RWT 15-3836; CARL THOMAS SULLIVAN, RWT 15-3836; NEAL MARK SUTHERLAND, RWT 15-3836; DAVID M. SWAN, RWT 15-3836; DAVID B. SWANEY, RWT 15-3836; AUBREY DANYELLE TAPLEY, RWT 15-3836; MILAN B. THAKKAR, RWT 15-3836; TROY THOMAS, RWT 15-3836; CHRISTOPHER T. THORNHILL, RWT 15-3836; TYRONE ANTHONY TIMMS, RWT 15-3836; ANTHONY TRINIDAD, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL ADAM TUMLINSON, RWT 15-3836; RICKY L. TURNER, RWT 15-3836; NATHAN P. TURNOCK, RWT 15-3836; EDWIN TODD TURPIN, RWT 15-3836; ERIK D. UPHAM, RWT 15-3836; STEPHENY GUPTON, RWT 15-3836, (PR); PAUL R. VADNEY, RWT 15-3836; DANIEL E. VALENTINE, RWT 15-3836; SIMON ALLEN WADE, RWT 15-3836; ROBERT WAGENAAR, RWT 15-3836; RICKEY TREYMANE WAITERS, RWT 15-3836; ERVIN L. WALKER, RWT 15-3836; TEDDRIC O'NEAL WALKER, RWT 15-3836; ALBERTO JOSEPH WALRATH, RWT 15-3836; JULIO PIPINO WALTON, RWT 15-3836; GORDON ALLEN WARD, RWT 15-3836; ERIC G. WATERS, SR., RWT 15-3836; TIMOTHY J. WATSON, RWT 15-3836; GEORGE L. WATSON, III, RWT 15-3836; EDWARD B. WEIBL, RWT 15-3836; KOLE WELSH, RWT 15-3836; WILLIAM WESTLEY WESTBURG, JR., RWT 15-3836; DAVID B. WHALING, RWT 15-3836; JACOB WHETSTONE, RWT 15-3836; KATRINA LEANN WHITE, RWT 15-3836, Formerly Hightower; WILLIAM EMMETT WHITE, RWT 15-3836; ARTHUR WHITESIDE, RWT 15-3836; CLARENCE WILLIAM WICKHAM, RWT 15-3836; BELINDA M. WILLIAMS, RWT 15-3836; ROBERT L. WILLIAMS; TONY WILLIAMS, RWT 15-3836; ANTOINE LAVANTA WILLIAMS, SR., RWT 15-3836; JIMMY DWAYNE WILLIAMS, RWT 15-3836; KORI L. WILLIS, RWT 15-3836; RENE L. WILSON, RWT 15-3836; RONNAL WOMACK, RWT 15-3836; KEVIN L. WOODRUM, RWT 15-3836; DONALD P. WORRELL, RWT 15-3836; TONY L. WRIGHT, SR., RWT 15-3836; CLIFFORD YARDBROUGH, RWT 15-3836; SHAMERAN YOUKHANA, RWT 15-3836; RAPHAEL A. ZAMORA, RWT 15-3836; STEVEN C. ZIMMERMAN, RWT 15-3836; MICHAEL E. ZUNDLE, RWT 15-3836; TERRY ENNIS ADKINS, RWT 15-4020; ISSAC AGUILAR, RWT 15-4020; FRANCISCO EMILIO ALEXANDER, JR., RWT 15-4020; MEGHAN ARTEMIS O'CONAN, RWT 15-4020; SEVIM AYBULUT, RWT 15-4020; LORIN GENE BANNERMAN, RWT 15-4020; GREGORY O. BARNES, RWT 15-4020; ADAM M. BARTON, RWT 15-4020; CLAUDE N. BENSON, RWT 15-4020; BARRY J. BIEGO, RWT 15-4020; EDWARD LEE BRANCH, RWT 15-4020; YUSVF KENYATTA BRANTLEY, SR., RWT 15-4020; ALBERT BRIDGEMAN, RWT 15-4020; CASSANDRA BRUSHWOOD, RWT 15-4020; DESHUNNON CANNADY, RWT 15-4020; CLAUDIA CASTILLO, RWT 15-4020; JAMES RAY CHANDLER, III, RWT 15-4020; RICHARD COREY, RWT 15-4020; STEVE CROWSTON, RWT 15-4020; DAVID B. DA SILVA, SR., RWT 15-4020; CHARLES RAY DANIELS, RWT 15-4020; RYAN DEWITT TAYLOR, RWT 15-4020; WILLIAM J. DEVITO, RWT 15-4020; ENRIQUE DIAZ, RWT 15-4020; FRANK DOMEAUX, RWT 15-4020; MICHAEL R. DRUMMOND, JR., RWT 15-4020; TERRY W. EDGERTON, RWT 15-4020; JEFF EDWARDS, RWT 15-4020; MAURO CESAR FAZ, RWT 15-4020; NATHANIEL L. FLOYD, JR., RWT 15-4020; KENNETH NEIL FRANCIS, RWT 15-4020; RANDY R. GARCIA, RWT 15-4020; DANIEL R. GETTRIDGE, III, RWT 15-4020; MARK THOMAS GILBERT, RWT 15-4020; TAEISHA L.. GLENN, RWT 15-4020; MICHAEL P. GREENBURG, RWT 15-4020; DARYL GRIFFIN, RWT 15-4020; JONATHAN T. HALL, RWT 15-4020; KENNETH HALL-MAY, RWT 15-4020; MARLIN BRETT HALSTEAD, RWT 15-4020; JASON HAMMAN, RWT 15-4020; ROBERT WAYNE HARDY, JR., RWT 15-4020; THOMAS WILLIAM HEPPLER, RWT 15-4020; AUSTIN L. HILL, RWT 15-4020; ARTHUR L. HILLARD, RWT 15-4020; JONATHAN M. HINCKLEY, RWT 15-4020; ROBERT HOLDING, RWT 15-4020; ZACHARY RYAN HOLMES, RWT 15-4020; MESHELL TEE HORTON, RWT 15-4020; BRADLEY W. HUDSON, RWT 15-4020; WILLIAM M. HUDSON, RWT 15-4020; TODD LEE HUNKINS, RWT 15-4020; KIMBERLY HUNTER-PREWITT, RWT 15-4020; TIMOTHY P. HURLEY, RWT 15-4020; ROBERT E. JACKSON, JR., RWT 15-4020; CODY CARLTON JENNINGS, RWT 15-4020; JUNUOR AUGUSTUS JOHN, RWT 15-4020; CHARONDA LEVONNE JOHNSON, RWT 15-4020; NATHANIEL JOYNER, III, RWT 15-4020; SCOTT T. KAMM, RWT 15-4020; DOUGLAS L. KELLY, RWT 15-4020; PAUL J. KITTLE, JR., RWT 15-4020; AARON WAYNE KLETZING, RWT 15-4020; MORROW S. KRUM, JR., RWT 15-4020; KENNETH D. KUYKENDALL, RWT 15-4020; ROGER A. LANKFORD, RWT 15-4020; JAMES NOLAN LAW, JR., RWT 15-4020; HOWARD DEWITT LINSON, RWT 15-4020; MICHAEL D. LOPEZ, RWT 15-4020; TODD JASON MARLETT, RWT 15-4020; ELSA E. MARTINEZ, RWT 15-4020; GARY MASON, II, RWT 15-4020; JALMER A. MATEOLOPEZ, RWT 15-4020; DAN PATRICK MCDONOUGH, JR., RWT 15-4020; FREDRICK MCGEE, RWT 15-4020; JAMES R. MCPHERSON, RWT 15-4020; CLARENCE L. MCQUEEN, JR., RWT 15-4020; RYAN T. MCQUILLIAN, RWT 15-4020; EDWARD E. MELVIN, JR., RWT 15-4020; SCOTT DAVID MIRODDI, RWT 15-4020; FRANCIS D. MOLLARD, III, RWT 15-4020; ANTHONY MOORE, RWT 15-4020; BRIAN EDWARD MOORE, RWT 15-4020; RONNIE DEWAYNE NANTZ, RWT 15-4020; SEAN M. NELSON, RWT 15-4020; ERIC JEVON NICHOLS, RWT 15-4020; MARKUS LAMONT NORTHINGTON, RWT 15-4020; DAWN O'NEAL, RWT 15-4020; JOSE S. OCHOA, III, RWT 15-4020; JAN ERIK OHRSTROM, RWT 15-4020; LEROY ONTIBEROS, RWT 15-4020; LEROY WAYNE OSBORNE, RWT 15-4020; PHILLIP W. OSSOWSKI, RWT 15-4020; JONATHAN M. OWENS, RWT 15-4020; MATTHEW A. PADGETT, RWT 15-4020; CHARLES W. PAK, RWT 15-4020; BLU J. PANNHOFF, RWT 15-4020; WESLEY DEWAYNE PARKER, RWT 15-4020; VERNON PATTON, RWT 15-4020; MICHAEL A. PAYNE, RWT 15-4020; ZACHARY A. PAYNE, RWT 15-4020; SCOTT PENNINGTON, RWT 15-4020; MATTHEW E. PERETZ, RWT 15-4020; ALBERT GORDON PLUMLEE, JR., RWT 15-4020; CHARLOTTE RENEE PORCH, RWT 15-4020; AARON M. PRICE, RWT 15-4020; DANIEL RAULT, RWT 15-4020; VALIANT L. REA, RWT 15-4020; CHRISTOPHER R. REED, RWT 15-4020; MATTHEW RIDDLE, RWT 15-4020; DESHAUN A. RINGWOOD, RWT 15-4020; BRYCE W. RODGERS, RWT 15-4020; WILLIAM ROESSLING, RWT 15-4020; WILLIAM MICHAEL ROSE, JR., RWT 15-4020; JOE SANCHEZ, SR., RWT 15-4020; GABRIEL SCOTT, JR., RWT 15-4020; TIMOTHY E. SHEETS, RWT 15-4020; RALPH CALVIN SIEG, RWT 15-4020; KENNETH FRANCIS SLACH, RWT 15-4020; WILLIAM SMITH, RWT 15-4020; CRAIG S. SOTEBEER, RWT 15-4020; JONATHAN R. SPURKOSKY, RWT 15-4020; JAY D. STARR, RWT 15-4020; JOSH L. STEININGER, RWT 15-4020; TREVOR B. TAYLOR, RWT 15-4020; JEREMY E. TELLEZ, RWT 15-4020; DAVID J. TEXADA, RWT 15-4020; RODNEY J. THURMAN, RWT 15-4020; BRIAN P. TOLBERT, RWT 15-4020; LEROY TORRES, RWT 15-4020; DAVID TRAN, RWT 15-4020; JOSE J. TREJO, RWT 15-4020; ROSARIO TROTSKY, RWT 15-4020; JASON S. VEST, RWT 15-4020; RENEE E. VILLEGAS, RWT 15-4020; ROBERT L. WILLIAMS, JR., RWT 15-4020; RODERICK W. WALKER, RWT 15-4020; THOMAS J. WASHINGTON, JR., RWT 15-4020; MARK H. WELLS, RWT 15-4020; CARL DEAN WILEY, RWT 15-4020; DR. CAROLINE WILLIAMS, RWT 15-4020; JAMES R. YORK, RWT 15-4020; STEVEN J. ZALETEL, SR., RWT 15-4020; ROBERT D. ZIEGELMAIR, RWT 15-4020; LAURA JONES; KEITH JONES; JAMES W. SAVINO, III; JULIA SAVINO; TERRANCE SORDAHL; JONATHAN COOK, RWT 16-2880; DAVID MONTOYA, RWT 15-2404; JEFF BALDUINI, RWT 15-3531; MICHAEL HARTMAN, RWT 15-3531; BRETT NUTTER, RWT 15-3531; WILLIAM VANCE, RWT 15-3531, Plaintiffs - Appellants,
v.
KBR, INC.; KELLOGG BROWN & ROOT, LLC; HALLIBURTON COMPANY; KELLOGG BROWN & ROOT SERVICES, INC.; BROWN AND ROOT SERVICES; DII INDUSTRIES, LLC; HALLIBURTON ENERGY SERVICES, INC.; KBR HOLDINGS, LLC; KELLOGG BROWN & ROOT, INC.; KELLOGG BROWN & ROOT INTERNATIONAL, INC.; KBR GROUP HOLDINGS, LLC; KBR TECHNICAL SERVICES, INC., Defendants - Appellees, and ERKA LTD., Defendant. PROFESSIONAL SERVICES COUNCIL; NATIONAL DEFENSE INDUSTRIAL ASSOCIATION, Amici Supporting Appellees.

          Argued: May 9, 2018

          Appeal from the United States District Court for the District of Maryland, at Greenbelt. Roger W. Titus, Senior District Judge. (8:09-md-2083-RWT)

         ARGUED:

          Susan L. Burke, LAW OFFICES OF SUSAN L. BURKE, Baltimore, Maryland, for Appellants.

          Warren W. Harris, BRACEWELL LLP, for Appellees.

         ON BRIEF:

          Frederick C. Baker, Lisa Marie Saltzburg, James W. Ledlie, MOTLEY RICE, LLC, Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina, for Appellants.

          Raymond B. Biagini, Robert A. Matthews, Daniel L. Russell Jr., Marianne F. Kies, COVINGTON & BURLING LLP, Washington, D.C.; Jeffrey L. Oldham, Yvonne Y. Ho, BRACEWELL LLP, Houston, Texas, for Appellees.

          Lisa Norrett Himes, ROGERS JOSEPH O'DONNELL, PC, Washington, D.C.; Lawrence S. Ebner, CAPITAL APPELLATE ADVOCACY PLLC, Washington, D.C.; Alan L. Chvotkin, PROFESSIONAL SERVICES COUNCIL, Arlington, Virginia, for Amici Curiae.

          Before KING, DIAZ, and FLOYD, Circuit Judges.

          FLOYD, CIRCUIT JUDGE.

         The Constitution entrusts the President and Congress, not the courts, with the power to resolve political questions. See Japan Whaling Ass'n v. Am. Cetacean Soc'y, 478 U.S. 221, 230 (1986); Taylor v. Kellogg, Brown & Root Servs., Inc., 658 F.3d 402, 408-409 (4th Cir. 2011). The issue before us is whether a suit brought by United States military personnel, civilian contractors, and surviving family members (collectively "Servicemembers") against Kellogg, Brown, & Root, LLC, and Halliburton Company (collectively "KBR") for injuries allegedly caused by KBR's waste management and water services across Iraq and Afghanistan implicates such a political question.

         This case returns to us after the district court created an extensive factual record through a herculean discovery process and once again concluded that the Servicemembers' suit implicates a political question that federal courts cannot adjudicate. See In re KBR, Inc., Burn Pit Litig., 268 F.Supp.3d 778 (D. Md. 2017) ("Burn Pit IV"). Additionally, the district court held that the Federal Tort Claims Act ("FTCA") preempts the Servicemembers' claims. We agree with the district court that the political question doctrine bars the Servicemembers' suit. Therefore, we need not reach the FTCA preemption issue. Accordingly, we affirm in part and vacate in part.

         I.

         A.

         Since the United States began its military operations in Afghanistan and Iraq in 2001 and 2003, respectively, the U.S. military has depended heavily on contractors to support its mission. For example, as the military established forward operating bases ("FOBs") across the two theaters, those bases necessitated extensive contractor support for the management of waste, ammunition, fuel, and facilities, and provision of water treatment and food services, so that the warfighters could focus on combat operations. To provide waste management and water services at the FOBs, the Army awarded KBR a ten-year contract called the Logistics Civil Augmentation Program III ("LOGCAP III").

         Since 2008, through 63 separate complaints, the Servicemembers have sued KBR, alleging that they suffered harms from being exposed to smoke from open air burn pits and drinking impure water.[1] The Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation consolidated and transferred these cases to the District of Maryland for pretrial proceedings. The amended complaint, in large part, alleges that KBR failed to design, manage, and operate the burn pits safely and to treat and monitor water qualities.

         Before any jurisdictional discovery took place, on February 27, 2013, the district court granted KBR's renewed motion to dismiss.[2] In re KBR, Inc., Burn Pit Litig., 925 F.Supp.2d 752, 774 (D. Md. 2013) ("Burn Pit II"). The district court concluded that (1) the case presented a nonjusticiable political question, (2) KBR was shielded from suit under derivative sovereign immunity, and (3) the FTCA preempted the Servicemembers' state law claims. See id. at 765-68, 771. On appeal, this Court vacated and remanded on the grounds that the record was not sufficiently developed to support the district court's decision. In re KBR., Burn Pit Litig., 744 F.3d 326 (4th Cir. 2014) ("Burn Pit III").

         On remand, the district court commenced jurisdictional discovery regarding "(1) [t]he degree to which the military controlled KBR's performance of the contracts" and "(2) [t]he degree to which KBR was integrated into military command."[3] J.A. 332. Jurisdictional discovery yielded over 5.8 million pages of documents, including almost a million pages of contract documents, and 34 witness depositions. After the conclusion of jurisdictional discovery, KBR moved to dismiss for lack of subject matter jurisdiction pursuant to Rule 12(b)(1) based on the political question doctrine and for summary judgment pursuant to Rule 56 based on FTCA preemption. The district court held an evidentiary hearing during which each side presented a comprehensive case. KBR presented six live witnesses. The Servicemembers presented one live witness and introduced deposition testimony excerpts and the contractual language from LOGCAP III and various task orders.

         B.

         Based on the evidence gathered from jurisdictional discovery and presented during the evidentiary hearing, the district court made key factual findings pertaining to (1) KBR's management of waste, (2) KBR's provision of water services, (3) the military's contracting process, and (4) KBR's integration into the military chain of command.

         1.

         The district court found that "the military, after balancing all the risks and alternative methods of waste disposal, made the sensitive decision to use burn pits, and only burn pits, at all FOBs in Iraq and Afghanistan." Burn Pit IV, 268 F.Supp.3d at 803. The district court also found that the military determined that no feasible alternatives to burn pits-such as the use of incinerators, landfills, ...


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