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Williams v. Big Picture Loans, LLC

United States District Court, E.D. Virginia

July 27, 2018

LULA WILLIAMS, et al., on behalf of themselves and all individuals similarly situated, Plaintiffs,
BIG PICTURE LOANS, LLC, et al., Defendants.

         PUBLIC VERSION [1]


          Robert E. Payne Senior United States District Judge

         This matter is before the Court on DEFENDANTS BIG PICTURE LOANS AND ASCENSION TECHNOLOGIES' MOTION TO DISMISS FOR LACK OF SUBJECT MATTER JURISDICTION (ECF No. 22). Big Picture Loans, LLC ("Big Picture") and Ascension Technologies, Inc. ("Ascension") argue that the Court lacks subject matter jurisdiction over all claims asserted against them because they qualify as arms of the Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians ("the Tribe") and are thereby entitled to tribal sovereign immunity. For the reasons set forth below, the motion was denied. See ECF No. 124.


         A. Factual Background

         1. Tribal Regulatory Structure

         The Tribe is a federally recognized Indian tribe, and its members reside close to their ancestral homeland near Watersmeet, Michigan. 25 U.S.C. § 1300h(1)-(2). Its status as an "independent tribal entity" has consistently been reaffirmed. See id. § 1300h-2(a). As a result, the Tribe is a sovereign entity that can create its own laws and regulations.

         To that end, the Tribe adopted its current constitution on May 14, 1992 ("the LVD Constitution") for the Tribe's "government, protection and common welfare." ECF No. 23-1 at 1, 19. Among other things, the LVD Constitution established the Tribe's council ("the LVD Council"), granting it the authority to, inter alia, enact law, including ordinances and regulations; manage the Tribe's economic affairs; and "promote and protect the health, safety, education, and general welfare of the [Tribe] and its members." Id. art. IV, § 1(a)-(b), (f) . The Council could also charter organizations and delegate them with the authority to manage the Tribe's economic affairs. Id. § l(j) .

         The Tribe initially pursued economic self-sufficiency by opening a casino in the late 1990s. The casino provided significant revenue for the Tribe until 2008, when the recession severely limited the casino's revenue stream and forced the Tribe to explore other avenues to improve its finances. One of these steps was to start tribal businesses in certain areas, such as online lending, that would yield profits for the Tribe. Hazen Aff. (ECF No. 34-1) ¶¶ 2-5.

         On July 8, 2011, the LVD Council enacted the Tribal Consumer Financial Services Regulatory Code ("the Code"), which legalized online lending by the Tribe. July 8, 2011 Resolution (ECF No. 23-5) at 1; Nov. 18, 2011 Resolution (ECF No. 23-3) at 1-2. The purpose of the Code was, inter alia: (1) to "[d]iversify and expedite the development of the [Tribe's] economy" in order to "improve the Tribe's economic self-sufficiency [and] to enable the Tribe to better serve the social, economic, educational, and health and safety needs of its members and visitors"; (2) to "[e]nsure that all consumer financial services profits are used for the benefit of the Tribe and [it]s community"; and (3) to "[e]nsure that the Tribe provides a Tribal-based forum for the fair and orderly resolution of consumer financial services disputes consistent with the Tribe's preservation of sovereign immunity." Code (ECF No. 23-4) §§ 1.1(a), 1.2(a), (c), (g) . The Code required that all entities offering tribal consumer financial services obtain licenses through a particular licensing process, as part of which licensees had to certify that they would "abide by all applicable Tribal and Federal laws, regulations and policies. Id. §§ 1.3(d), 5-7, 5.2(b)(8). It also established specific rules for certain financial services transactions, including small loans transactions. See id. § 11.

         The Code also created the Tribal Financial Services Regulatory Authority ("the TFSRA") to enforce the Code and regulate licensees. Id. § 4.1. As a governmental subdivision of the Tribe, the TFSRA was "under the direction and control of the [LVD] Council." Id. § 4.4. However, the Code granted the TFSRA certain independent powers, including, as relevant here, the powers: (1) to "promulgate, adopt, and enforce regulations and rules furthering the purpose and provisions of the th[e] Code"; (2) to discipline licensees and other persons "by ordering immediate compliance, issuing fines and sanctions, and suspending or revoking any [l]icense pursuant to the hearings and due process required by Section 4.18 of th[e] Code"; and (3) to investigate any licensee or person engaging in consumer financial services within the Tribe's jurisdiction. Id. § 4.13(a)-(d), (h)-(i); id §§ 4.14, 4.16, 4.18.

         In addition, the Code placed the TFSRA at the center of a three-tiered dispute resolution process for loan borrowers from tribal licensees. First, consumers that are "aggrieved" by a licensee's action must submit a written complaint to the licensee. The licensee must respond in writing within thirty days, and if it does not, it may be fined by the TFSRA in an amount equivalent to the greater of the outstanding principal loan amount or $1, 500. Id. § 9.2(a)-(b). Second, consumers dissatisfied with a licensee's response (or who receive no response at all) may submit a written request for administrative review to the TFSRA within ninety days of the licensee's determination. The TFSRA may then "investigate the dispute in any manner it chooses," including by granting an administrative hearing. If such a hearing occurs, consumers can be represented by counsel at their own expense, and the TFSRA can conduct matters before and during the hearing in a quasi-judicial manner. After any hearing, the TFSRA must issue a written decision that contains its factual findings and conclusions of law, and "may grant or deny any relief as the [TFSRA] determines appropriate."[2] Consumers can then request rehearing, which the TFSRA may grant or deny at its discretion. Id. § 9.3(a)-(g). Finally, consumers may appeal adverse TFSRA decisions by filing a written petition for review with the Tribal Court ("the LVD Court") within ninety days of the TFSRA's decision. The LVD Court's review is limited to the TFSRA's administrative record, and the Court must give deference to the TFSRA's interpretations and applications of the Code. It can only reverse a decision that is "arbitrary and capricious, or that ... is not supported by the evidence," and must not reverse because of "[m]ere disagreement with the [TFSRA]'s factual findings." The LVD Court's subsequent opinion is final and cannot be appealed. Id. § 9.4.

         The latest development in the Tribe's history of economic regulation occurred on August 26, 2014, when the LVD Council enacted the Business Entity Ordinance ("the Business Ordinance"). Aug. 28 Resolution (ECF No. 23-6) at 1-2. The Business Ordinance created comprehensive procedures for the creation, operation, and dissolution of various tribal entities, including limited liability companies ("LLCs"). See generally Business Ordinance (ECF No. 23-7). Relevant to this dispute, the Ordinance stated that a tribally-owned LLC with the Tribe as its sole member would "be considered a wholly owned and operated instrumentality of the Tribe and . . . have all the privileges and immunities of the Tribe, including but not limited to the Tribe's sovereign immunity from suit, except as explicitly waived by the [LVD] Council." Id. Ch. 5, § 8(E). The Ordinance further indicated that those LLCs would be subject to the LVD Court's jurisdiction, but that such provision would not waive any claim to sovereign immunity in state or federal court. Id. Ch. 1, § 3(A), (D).

         2 . Beginning of Tribal Lending Operations

         Soon after the Code was enacted, the Tribe began operating in the online lending arena when the LVD Council organized Red Rock Tribal Lending, LLC ("Red Rock") as a tribally-owned LLC on September 14, 2011. See Sept. 14, 2011 Resolution (ECF No. 23- 8). The company was managed by two members of the Tribe, and the Tribe was Red Rock's sole member. Red Rock Arts, of Organization (ECF No. 23-9), Art. 7; Hazen Aff. ¶¶ 6-7. The Complaint alleges that Matt Martorello ("Martorello")-along with Bellicose Capital, LLC ("Bellicose")[3] and Bellicose's general counsel, Daniel Gravel ("Gravel")-associated with the Tribe to form Red Rock. Compl. (ECF No. 1) ¶¶ 13, 29. Martorello, however, states that he was never a manager or member of Red Rock, nor were any of the companies that he owned or managed. Martorello Decl. (ECF No. 106-1) ¶¶ 18-21. Red Rock provided loans to consumers from its offices on the Reservation, and its employees, computers, and records were all located there. Moreover, as a tribal business, Red Rock was regulated by the TFSRA. Hazen Aff. ¶¶ 8-9.

         Red Rock subsequently decided to contract with an outside entity to better learn the lending industry. The Tribe had identified Martorello as a potential consultant in mid-2011, but he was not involved in the creation of Red Rock. Martorello Decl. ¶¶ 14, 17. Then, on October 25, 2011, Red Rock contracted with Bellicose VI, LLC ("Bellicose VI")-a subsidiary of Bellicose-for it to provide Red Rock with vendor management services, compliance management assistance, marketing material development, and risk modeling and data analytics development. Hazen Aff. ¶ 10; Servicing Agm' t[4] (ECF No. 83-2) at 1. On April 15, 2012, Bellicose VI assigned its interest in the contract to SourcePoint VI, LLC ("SourcePoint"), another Bellicose subsidiary. Hazen Aff. ¶ 12; Servicing Agm't at 1.

         The Servicing Agreement detailed the revenue distribution structure for Red Rock's lending business and each party's duties as to that business. Under the contract, revenues were distributed first to Red Rock, which received 2% of all gross revenues "plus bad debt recoveries minus the sum of charge backs and bad debt charge-offs." Servicing Agm't §§ 2.25, 6.4.1. The remainder was then distributed in the following order: (1) to SourcePoint, to reimburse it for advances made to Red Rock and for servicing expenses; (2) to any of Red Rock's creditors, to pay outstanding debt that was then due; and (3) to SourcePoint, to pay its monthly servicing fee. Id. § 6.4.2-. 5. The servicing fee was a variable performance-based fee equivalent to whatever cash basis revenue remained after the distributions above, and was at a minimum $20, 000. Id. § 3.5.1. Martorello claims that the Tribe itself suggested this revenue split because it guaranteed monthly income for the Tribe's general fund while also incentivizing SourcePoint to help the Tribe grow its businesses. Martorello Decl. ¶ 36. In addition, aside from these distributions, Red Rock received and retained ownership of all intellectual property developed under the Servicing Agreement by SourcePoint. Id. ¶ 35.

         The Agreement also assigned specific responsibilities to SourcePoint. For instance, after noting that SourcePoint was being engaged as Red Rock's "independent contractor" to perform the services noted, the Agreement granted to SourcePoint "the authority and responsibility over all communication and interaction whatsoever between [Red Rock] and each service provider, lender and other agents of [Red Rock]." Id. § 3.1. The contract also prevented Red Rock from operating its lending business anywhere without using SourcePoint to provide its management and consulting services for those operations. Id. § 3.3.1. In addition, the Servicing Agreement required SourcePoint to select a bank account to store all funds generated by Red Rock's lending, and gave SourcePoint-unless otherwise agreed between Red Rock and SourcePoint-the "sole signatory and transfer authority over such bank accounts," as well as "sole authority to sweep monies from such bank accounts" to distribute revenues under the priority structure. Id. § 4.4. Finally, the Agreement gave SourcePoint numerous other duties concerning the day-to-day functioning of Red Rock's lending business, such as: (1) "[s]creening of and selecting service providers and lenders, and negotiating agreements with such service providers and lenders on behalf of [Red Rock]"; (2) "[d]evelopment and promotion of sound and positive business relationships on behalf of [Red Rock] with the designated service providers and lenders"; (3) preparation of regulatory, compliance, training, education, financial reporting and accounting, website content, and marketing standards; (4) "providing pre-qualified leads to [Red Rock] and providing the necessary credit-modeling data and risk assessment strategies" to Red Rock; and (5) "training and monitoring [Red Rock] employees . . . that operate [Red Rock]'s call center." Id. § 4.2.1.[5]

         However, the Servicing Agreement also limited the ultimate authority of SourcePoint over Red Rock's management decisions. For instance, the provision allowing SourcePoint to provide leads and credit-modeling data to Red Rock also said that "[t]he criteria used to extend funds to individual borrowers will remain within the sole and absolute discretion of [Red Rock] and [Red Rock] shall execute all necessary loan documentation." Id. § 4.2.1(i). Similarly, SourcePoint "ha[d] no authority to engage in origination activities, execute loan documentation, or approve the issuance of loans to third parties. Final determination as to whether to lend to a consumer rest[ed] with [Red Rock]." Id. § 4.1.1. SourcePoint also needed the Tribe's written consent "to do any of the following: (1) to borrow, pledge, assign, convey, encumber, grant security interest in, guaranty, or otherwise restrict the assets of [Red Rock]; (2) to sell or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of the assets of [Red Rock]; [or] (3) to waive the sovereign immunity of [Red Rock]." Id. § 4.1.2. In other words, SourcePoint's duties, although numerous, were to be limited to providing "reasonable measures for the orderly administration and management" of Red Rock. Id. § 4.2.1.

         Some evidence also indicates that Red Rock's role under the Servicing Agreement was more substantial than Plaintiffs suggest. Red Rock's co-manager, Michelle Hazen ("Hazen"), says that, "[w]hile Red Rock received advice and consulted with Bellicose about operations, all final decisions about operations were made by Red Rock's managers." Hazen Aff. ¶ 11; see also ECF No. 83-4 (e-mail from SourcePoint employee to tribal members recommending adoption of direct mail campaign prepared by SourcePoint). Similarly, Martorello indicates that, as a consultant, [6] he "made suggestions and offered advice to Red Rock's co-managers," but "Red Rock's co-managers were ultimately responsible for all decisions regarding Red Rock's operation." Furthermore, Martorello, Bellicose, and SourcePoint never, on Red Rock's behalf, made lending decisions; originated a consumer loan; purchased a loan originated by Red Rock; or took any action to collect a Red Rock loan. Instead, Red Rock always made the final decision to lend to a particular consumer, and Red Rock's co-managers, including Hazen, always reviewed and approved marketing materials, including the prescreening of credit reports.[7] Finally, Bellicose's and SourcePoint's access to Red Rock's bank accounts was limited by deposit access control agreements provided by Red Rock, which Red Rock or the Tribe could terminate at any time. Furthermore, although Martorello was a signatory on certain Red Rock accounts, he claims that he was listed that way only "to facilitate accounts payable, and never without express contractual or delegated authority." Martorello Decl. ¶¶ 22-28.

         Red Rock then began making loans to consumers, including some in New York. In February 2013, the New York Department of Financial Services ("the Department") sent cease-and-desist letters to a number of lending entities, including the Tribe, accusing them of "using the Internet to offer and originate illegal payday loans to New York consumers, in violation of New York's civil and criminal usury laws."[8] Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians v. N.Y. State Dep't of Fin. Servs., 974 F.Supp.2d 353, 356 (S.D.N.Y. 2013) (internal quotations omitted). The Department also sent letters to third parties that credit and debit payday loan payments, advising them that the Department nothing to do with Red Rock. Second, the response did not concern Big Picture's relationship with third parties, and even would pursue enforcement actions against lenders that refused to cease and desist. Id. at 356-57. This threat of regulatory enforcement caused the lending entities' business partners to limit or end their relationship with the entities, which in turn led the entities to seek a preliminary injunction preventing the Department from enforcing New York's anti-usury statutes against them-in part because any regulation would infringe on the entities' tribal sovereignty. See id. at 357-58. However, the court denied the entities' request, finding that they had not shown a likelihood of success on the merits because their online lending to New York consumers constituted off-reservation activity, and could therefore be properly regulated under New York's non-discriminatory anti-usury laws. See id. at 360-61. The Second Circuit affirmed this decision in October 2014. See Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians v. N.Y. State Dep't of Fin. Servs., 769 F.3d 105 (2d Cir. 2014). The Tribe's response to these decisions is unknown.

         3. Expansion of Tribal Lending Business

         After 2011, through its operation of Red Rock and relationship with Bellicose and Martorello, the Tribe gained knowledge of the online lending industry. Hazen Aff. ¶ 13; Martorello Decl. ¶¶ 47-48. The Tribe wanted to apply that knowledge to expand its online lending platform and increase profitability for the Tribe, employ more tribal members, and acquire its vendors' businesses so that the Tribe would earn more money. Hazen Aff. ¶ 13. As part of that strategy, the LVD Council organized Big Picture on August 26, 2014. Aug. 26, 2014 Resolution (ECF No. 23-10) . Big Picture was formed "as a wholly owned and operated instrumentality of the Tribe," and was managed by two tribal members, Hazen and James Williams ("Williams"). Id. at 2-3. Big Picture was meant to serve as an independent tribal lending entity that would "ultimately consolidate the business" of the Tribe's other lending entities, Red Rock and Duck Creek Tribal Financial, LLC. Id. at 1.

         On February 5, 2015, the LVD Council formed another entity, Tribal Economic Development Holdings, LLC ("TED"), to operate the Tribe's current and future lending companies. Feb. 5, 2015 TED Resolution (ECF No. 23-13). The Tribe was the sole member of TED, and Hazen and Williams were designated as its co-managers. Id. at 3; TED Arts, of Organization (ECF No. 23-14), Arts. 8-9. Big Picture's membership was also restructured so that TED became its sole member. Big Picture Arts, of Organization (ECF No. 23-13), Arts. 8-9. Then, also on February 5, the LVD Council formed Ascension as a subsidiary of TED "for the purpose of engaging in marketing, technological and vendor services" to support the Tribe's lending entities. Feb. 5, 2015 Ascension Resolution (ECF No. 23-16) at 1. Ascension was created "as a wholly owned and operated instrumentality of the Tribe," with TED as its sole member, and was managed by Hazen and Williams. Id. at 2-3; Ascension Arts, of Organization (ECF No. 23-17), Arts. 8-9. Hazen and Williams named Brian McFadden ("McFadden") as Ascension's President. Feb. 5, 2015 Ascension Resolution at 3.

         4. Tribe's Acquisition of Bellicose

         Since 2012, Martorello and the Tribe had engaged in multiple conversations about the potential sale of Martorello's consulting companies to the Tribe, which would allow the Tribe to engage in online lending without relying on outside vendors for support services. The creation of TED and Ascension and reorganization of Big Picture in February 2015 were undertaken to enable the Tribe to more easily purchase Bellicose, in part because those steps added layers to protect the Tribe from liability. Martorello Decl. ¶¶ 49-50; Martorello Sept. 11, 2015 E-mail (ECF No. 83-8) at LVD-DEF00014697. In addition, around that time, the LVD Council formed Tribal Acquisition Company, LLC ("TAC"), with TED as its sole member and Hazen and Williams as co-managers, for the sole purpose of acquiring Bellicose without creating a nexus between TED and Delaware. Sept. 14, 2015 Merger Resolution (ECF No. 34-2) ("the Merger Resolution") at 2; Martorello Sept. 11, 2015 E-mail at LVD-DEF00014697.

         In early 2015, the parties agreed on the basic framework of the merger: a seller-financed transaction with non-fixed payments over a seven-year term, with any outstanding amount due being forgiven at the end of that term. According to Martorello, the Tribe requested this structure because it would enable the Tribe to accomplish its goals of economic self-sufficiency more easily. Martorello Decl. ¶ 51. The seller-financier would be Eventide Credit Acquisitions, LLC ("Eventide"), a company managed and majority-owned by multiple entities of which Martorello was the president. Merger Resolution at 3; Eventide Operating Agm't, Sched. A (ECF No. 91-11). Eventide would provide a $300 million loan to TED, which TED would then use to purchase Bellicose. Merger Resolution at 3. After this structure was set, Martorello continued negotiating with the Tribe over the next several months. Martorello Decl. ¶ 52. The parties reached a final agreement on September 14, 2015, memorializing the terms of the deal in a loan agreement ("the Loan Agreement") and a promissory note ("the Note"). Merger Resolution at 7-9; see generally Loan Agreement (ECF No. 83-17); Note (ECF No. 83-11) . As part of the transaction, the LVD Council approved a limited waiver of TED's and Big Picture's sovereign immunity in connection with TED's repayment of the Eventide loan during its seven-year term. See Sept. 14, 2015 Immunity Waiver Resolution (ECF No. 34-3) at 2-8. On January 26, 2016, the Tribe finally completed its purchase of Bellicose, including subsidiaries like SourcePoint, and acquired all of Bellicose's data, software, and corporate goodwill. Martorello Decl. ¶ 53; Hazen Aff. ¶ 22.

         Under the Note, revenues from Big Picture's lending business are distributed monthly in several steps. First, Big Picture makes a distribution to TED of Big Picture's gross revenues. Note § 1.2(a); Martorello Decl. ¶ 57. TED then distributes 2% of those gross revenues to the Tribe, until half of the total loan amount has been paid, at which time the distribution percentage increases from 2% to 4%. Note § 1.2(b)(1). The parties agreed to increase the monthly distribution from 2% to 3% in or around September 2016.[9] Note Addendum (ECF No. 91-18); Martorello Decl. ¶ 57. If TED defaults under the Loan Agreement, then the monthly distribution to the Tribe reduces to zero. Note § 1.2(b)(1); see also Loan Agreement § 6.1 (describing events triggering default). Second, TED pays an additional 2% of gross revenues to the Tribe to be reinvested "in growing the loan portfolio."[10] Note § 1.2(b)(2). That reinvestment amount must "stay in equity within [TED] or [Big Picture] conducting lending" until the Note and Loan Agreement terminate. As with the first distribution, this payment reduces to zero if TED defaults. Note § 1.2(b)(2). Third, TED and Big Picture must pay any interest and principal due to other creditors. Id. § 1.2(b)(3).

         Fourth, an amount is deducted to pay "[o]rdinary and necessary business expenses" incurred in connection with Big Picture's lending business, including payments to tribal and non-tribal vendors.[11] Id. § 1.2(b)(4); Martorello Decl. ¶ 57. Those expenses may not exceed reasonable rates for particular services, and TED and Big Picture have a fiduciary duty to Eventide to ensure that they do not "undermine the [p]arties' intent to maximize the cash flows directed to retire the Note as soon as possible." Note § 1.2(b)(4). Accordingly, TED must submit a monthly budget and expense report to Eventide, which Eventide uses to ensure that the expenses are reasonable and not inflated to deprive Eventide of payments it will receive under the Note. Id. § 1.2(c); Martorello Decl. ¶ 59. The Note allows expenses based on a "reasonable expansion" of Big Picture's lending operations in light of "industry climate and norms." Note § 1.2(b)(4)(b). Nonetheless, Eventide must approve a budget for such expansion to ensure that TED's repayment of the loan is not affected. Id. Martorello claims that Eventide has "never unreasonably withheld its consent to expenses, nor has it objected to the reasonable expansion of the business-even when expansion created additional debt for Big Picture which meant smaller (or no) payments to Eventide." Martorello Decl. ¶ 60.

         Finally, TED pays to Eventide the "Net Cash Available"-that is, Big Picture's gross revenues minus all the distributions and deductions above. That amount is applied first to any unpaid principal, and then to unpaid interest.[12] Note § 1.2. As Martorello explains, because Eventide receives payments last under the Note's distribution structure, it is possible that Eventide will not receive a principal payment in some months because TED has no net income from which to make a payment. This situation has occurred on at least five occasions. TED, on the other hand, has always received all of Big Picture's net income, and is guaranteed to receive its 3% distribution and reinvestment amount every month. Martorello Decl. ¶ 63.

         Each payment to Eventide under the waterfall structure is accompanied by a payment schedule. Note § 1.2(c). Based on these schedules, and other financial statements, Martorello states that TED has consistently paid down its principal under the Note, such that the Tribe has been receiving an equity interest in the lending support services that it acquired through Bellicose. He notes that, since the close of the acquisition, Eventide's Note payments have amounted to $21, 375, 922.10, whereas the total economic consideration obtained by the Tribe under the Note has been $28, 184, 007.69. Martorello Decl. ¶ 63; McFadden Aff. (ECF No. 106-17) ¶ 17. However, the exact basis of those figures is unclear. In fact, Plaintiffs cite two documents with different numbers than those provided by Martorello. One indicates that, as of June 2017, the cumulative repayment to Eventide was $17, 968, 528.36, and the cumulative amount to TED was $4, 924, 930.94 ($1, 963, 708.81 in distributions, and $2, 961, 222.13 in reinvestments). Pis. Opp. (ECF No. 90) at 11, 21-22. The second shows slightly higher numbers than those through December 2017. See id. Those figures are consistent with Big Picture's assertion that, by September 2017, TED had distributed approximately $20.5 million in loan payments to Eventide and nearly $5 million to the Tribe ($3, 035, 374.90 in distributions, and $1, 948, 999.53 in reinvestments). Big Picture Suppl. Interrogatory Responses (ECF No. 102-3) ¶ 1. Martorello's calculations might include amounts not accounted for in those spreadsheets, such as the economic value of Bellicose's data or corporate goodwill, but that is hard to discern. In any event, the Note is fixed to expire seven years after its execution date-thus, by September 14, 2022-at which time "the remaining balance is forgiven." Note § 1.3.

         The Tribe finished restructuring its lending businesses soon after the Bellicose purchase. TAC dissolved in late January 2016 after control of Bellicose had been transferred to TED. Arts, of Dissolution (ECF No. 91-9). Around the same time, Bellicose's assets were assigned to Ascension and its liabilities were assigned to Big Picture, and Bellicose ceased to exist. Shortly thereafter, on February 16, 2016, Big Picture engaged Ascension as an independent contractor to provide Big Picture with the servicing support services that Ascension had carried over from Bellicose. Intratribal Servicing Agm't (ECF No. 91-17) § 3.1; see also McFadden Feb. 24, 2015 Letter (ECF No. 91-30) (noting that all Bellicose VI positions and operations would be merged into Ascension).

         The Intratribal Servicing Agreement is similar to the earlier Servicing Agreement between Red Rock and SourcePoint. In particular, the contract requires that Ascension "develop and recommend to [Big Picture] . . . reasonable measures for the orderly administration and management of [Big Picture] in the areas of financial reporting, financing, regulatory compliance, marketing, human resources, development of vendor relationships, collections and risk assessment," and then describes most of the same day-to-day operational responsibilities that SourcePoint had. Intratribal Servicing Agm't § 4.2.1; see also Servicing Agm' t § 4.2.1. Ascension also receives a monthly fee, which is the sum of the following: (1) "[m]anpower charges," which are Ascension's salary costs, payroll taxes, and other employment expenses; (2) internal expenses, which are capped by Ascension's servicing budget; (3) overhead expenses, in different amounts based on whether Big Picture is the beneficiary of such expenses; and (4) a bonus plan for Ascension's employees. Intratribal Servicing Agm't § 3.4.

         Big Picture, however, retains the same managerial authority as Red Rock. To that end, the Intratribal Servicing Agreement specifically provides that "[t]he criteria used to extend funds to individual borrowers will remain within the sole and absolute discretion of [Big Picture] . . . and [Big Picture] . . . shall execute all necessary loan documentations." Id. § 4.2.1(k). Likewise, Ascension "has no authority to engage in origination activities, execute loan documentation, or approve the issuance of loans to consumers. Final determination as to whether to lend to a consumer rests with [Big Picture] . . . ." Id. § 4.1. In addition, even though McFadden and Simon Liang ("Liang"), Ascension's controller, were added as authorized signers for Big Picture's bank accounts, ECF No. 83-23, their authority is bound by deposit account control and lockbox agreements, Intratribal Servicing Agm't §§4.4, 4.7. The only real limitation on Big Picture's authority is the Loan Agreement, which prevents TED or Big Picture from amending or terminating the Intratribal Servicing Agreement during the loan's seven-year term without Eventide's written consent. Loan Agm't § 5.12.

         On the same day that Big Picture contracted with Ascension, the LVD Council also authorized Red Rock to assign the majority of its consumer loans and obligations to Big Picture. Hazen Aff. ¶ 23; Feb. 16, 2016 Assignment Resolution (ECF No. 23-23) at 2-3; see generally Assignment Agm't (ECF No. 23-24). All unassigned loans were written off as bad debt, and Red Rock subsequently dissolved. Hazen Aff. ¶ 23; Red Rock Arts. of Dissolution (ECF No. 23-27); Feb. 16, 2016 Dissolution Resolution (ECF No. 23-26) . Hazen, as co-manager of Red Rock, gave the appropriate notice of dissolution to the TFSRA and to any party that might have claims against Red Rock. See ECF Nos. 23-28, 23-29. Big Picture then sent a notice of assignment to all consumers whose loans it had received, instructing them that Big Picture would begin collecting their loan payments effective February 17, 2016. ECF No. 23-25.

         5. Current Management of Big Picture and Ascension

         TED now oversees both Big Picture and Ascension. All three entities have their headquarters on the Reservation. TED Operating Agm't (ECF No. 23-33) § 1.3; Big Picture Operating Agm't (ECF No. 23-30) § 1.3/ Ascension Operating Agm't (ECF No. 23-18) § 1.3. Big Picture currently employs fifteen individuals on the Reservation. Ascension employs thirty-one individuals, most of whom work outside the Reservation at Ascension's satellite offices, Hazen Aff. ¶¶ 24-25, which appear to be in (at least) Atlanta, Mississippi, and Puerto Rico, Compl. ¶¶ 50-53. Hazen and Williams, both LVD Council members, co-manage all three companies. Hazen Aff. ¶¶ 2, 15, 18-20; Williams Aff. (ECF No. 23-36) ¶¶ 1, 11-13. That position grants them the broad authority to, in the case of Big Picture, "perform all actions as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the business of [Big Picture] including but not limited to the power to enter into contracts for services, to manage vendor relationships, to manage personnel issues and affairs of [Big Picture]." Big Picture Operating Agm't § 5.1(a).[13] Where the managers' power is limited by the operating agreements, the ultimate authority resides in the LVD Council. See id. § 5.2. Similarly, all three entities must submit quarterly reports to either the LVD Council (for TED) or TED (for Big Picture and Ascension). Id. § 5.8; TED Operating Agm't § 4.7; Ascension Operating Agm't § 5.8.

         Hazen has been Big Picture's CEO since December 2015. Hazen Aff. ¶ 20. However, as for Ascension, Hazen and Williams have delegated to McFadden: (1) the "approval of Ascension strategic direction," which must be communicated at least quarterly to the co-managers; (2) "authority to execute documents on behalf of Ascension"; (3) "authority to open and maintain bank accounts"; (4) "authority to adopt, terminate, or change employee benefit plans or programs"; and (5) "authority regarding all matters necessary for . . . day to day management." Ascension Delegation of Authority Policy (ECF No. 91-13) § 1.4. McFadden must report regularly to Hazen and Williams about the authority exercised under those provisions and any matters that might fall under their purview. Id. § 1.5. McFadden also must obtain co-manager approval "for changes in operations, personnel, and distributions." McFadden Aff. ¶ 8.

         Martorello asserts that he has had limited contact with the Tribe since it purchased Bellicose in January 2016. As he states, he has never been involved in TED's operations, made any decisions on its behalf, provided any consulting services to it, or solicited any investors on its behalf. Likewise, he has never provided any consulting services to Big Picture or Ascension; suggested marketing strategies, underwriting criteria, or other policies to them; accessed any of their software systems, databases, bank accounts, or records; or hired or fired their employees. Martorello has interacted with Hazen and Williams when they have requested Eventide's permission to undertake expenses for Big Picture that exceeded budgeted expenses under the Note, but Martorello never proposed that they incur those expenses, nor did he object to their requests. Martorello Decl. ¶¶ 70-97; see also McFadden Aff. ¶¶ 13-16. Furthermore, says McFadden, neither Eventide nor Martorello participates in Ascension's day-to-day operations, and Ascension does not seek Eventide's or Martorello's consent for those operations, except if Ascension needs to expand its budget. Even in that case, explains McFadden, he would first obtain Hazen's or Williams' approval before contacting Eventide. McFadden Aff. ¶¶ 10-12.

         Big Picture operates in some ways as an independent financial entity. It maintains its operating account with a regional bank, where it funds all its loans, receives all consumer payments, pays all payroll and vendors, deposits all its investments, and makes distributions to TED and the Tribe.[14]Big Picture relies on private investors to fund its lending operation, including the loans themselves. These investments are made through traditional loan agreements and promissory notes, under which Big Picture is responsible to each investor. Hazen Aff. ¶¶ 26-27. The Tribe itself has invested over $7 million. Williams Aff. ¶ 8.

         Moreover, Big Picture's lending operation has yielded concrete financial benefits for the Tribe. Any profits that Big Picture earns are allocated to its sole member, TED, which in turn allocates those profits to the Tribe. Big Picture Operating Agm't § 6.1; TED Operation Agm' t § 6.1.[15] If Big Picture's cash account balance exceeds $500, it must declare an immediate distribution and transfer the excess to TED. Big Picture Operating Agm' t § 6.2. It is unclear if this always occurs, as e-mails from Liang to Martorello about repayment of Eventide's loan contain language indicating that Big Picture's cash balance was greater than $500, but that Big Picture "would like to keep [the balance] for lead acquisition and loan origination in future months." See, e.g., ECF No. 83-24 at MARTORELLO000218. In any event, beyond the profits obtained through the Note's revenue distributions, the Tribe also receives interest payments as a substantial investor in Big Picture. Proceeds from Big Picture's business now comprise more than 10% of the Tribe's general fund, and those profits could possibly fund more than 30% of the Tribe's budget over the next few years. Williams Aff. ¶¶ 9-10.

         The Tribe relies on Big Picture's funds for governmental programs and services. Id. ¶ 10. Specifically, Big Picture's revenues have been used to, in whole or in part: meet requirements necessary to secure $14.1 million in financing for the Tribe's new health clinic; refinance casino debt; fund college scholarships and pay for educational costs for members such as student housing, books, school supplies and equipment; create home ownership opportunities for members through tribally-purchased homes; subsidize tribal members' home purchases and rentals; provide a bridge loan to complete the new tribal health clinic that offers services to the regional community; fund new vehicles for the Tribe's Police Department; fund an Ojibwe language program and other cultural programs; provide foster care payments for eligible children, propane purchase assistance, and assistance for family care outside of the community; cover burial and other funeral expenses for members' families; fund renovations and new office space for the Tribe's Social Services Department; fund youth activities; renovate a new space for the LVD Court and bring in telecom services for remote court proceedings; and fund tribal elder nutrition programs and tribal elder home care and transport services. Hazen Aff. ¶ 31.

         6. Big Picture's Lending Process

         As noted, Big Picture has its principal place of business on the Reservation, and its employees are all located there. The servers for Big Picture's websites are also stored on the Reservation. And, because all loan applications are approved by Big Picture employees on the Reservation, all consumer loans are originated there. Id. ¶¶ 28, 30(a).

         To obtain a loan from Big Picture, consumers must log onto the company's website and complete and submit an application. Big Picture then conducts a review using a software-based underwriting process and either accepts or denies the Plication. Id. ¶ 30 (a)-(b). That software consolidates turner credit data from third-party service providers to verify applicants' information and determine creditworthiness. 3 Picture Interrogatory Responses ¶ 24. An applicant receives notice of denial if the application is denied. Hazen Aff. ¶ 30(d) .

         Even if an application is accepted, the consumer must Complete several more steps before the loan is finalized. First, e website prompts applicants to select their desired loan amount, which may be as high as $5, 000. Second, applicants must select the term of the loan, and Big Picture in turn provides an estimated annual percentage rate ("APR") based on the underwriting software's determination of an applicant's -payment ability. Third, applicants must review Big Picture's standard loan agreement, which includes the loan's APR and -payment schedule. Fourth, applicants must acknowledge their -view of, and agree to, the loan agreement-including the noice-of-law, forum-selection, and jury trial waiver clauses-rid Big Picture's privacy disclosures. Finally, applicants must elect their payment method. Id. ¶ 30(c)(1)-(6).

         Once a consumer signs the loan agreement, the contract goes to Big Picture for its employees' review. Employees on the Reservation perform a final verification of the applicant's information in the loan agreement and other details. If there are no issues, the reviewing employee manually enters the date of disbursal of funds, which authorizes electronic approval of the agreement. This action also causes the loan to be originated and triggers the transmission of instructions for ...

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